Predators, Parasites and their Prey
|Keystone Predators Maintain Ecological Equilibrium:
A keystone species — like the Platteau Pika in China or the Black Tailed Prairie Dog in Arizona — has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its abundance, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem, helping to determine the types and numbers of various others species in a community. Such an organism plays a role in its ecosystem that is analogous to the role of a keystone in an arch. While the keystone feels the least pressure of any of the stones in an arch, the arch still collapses without it. Ecosystems experience a dramatic loss of biodiversity & equilibrium if the keystone species is removed. Keystone Predator-prey systems enhance ecological equilibrium and balance.A starfish is the top predator upon a community of invertebrates inhabiting tidally inundated rock faces in the Pacific Northwest. The rest of the community included mollusks, barnacles and other invertebrates, for a total of 12 species (not counting microscopic taxa). When the starfish was removed the species were reduced to 11. Soon, an acorn barnacle and a mussel began to occupy virtually all available space, out competing other species. Species diversity dropped from more than 12 species to essentially 2. The starfish was a keystone predator, keeping the strongest competitors in check. Although it was a predator, it helped to maintain a greater number of species in the community. Its beneficial impact on species that were weak competitors is an example of an indirect effect. CommonSism Jurisprudence, restricting all human cultures, religions, races, etc to procreating and consuming below regional, national and international carrying capacity limits; if implemented function as a form of ‘legal /jurisprudence starfish’ Keystone predation, by eliminating the breeding and consuming predator cheaters, to (a) keep the system stable with regard to human population vis a vis other species and resources; and (b) restrict any one religion, race, or culture from overpredation; by outcompeting all other species (due to greater access to capital (consumption war predatory benefits) or human cannon fodder (breeding war predatory benefits).
| Predator/Parasite-Prey Growth-Collapse Cycle:
Predation: Predator-Prey and parasite-host involves interactions in which one organism consumes all or part (resources) of another. These linkages are the prime movers of energy through food chains. They are an important factor in the ecology of populations, determining mortality of prey and birth of new predators. Predation is an important evolutionary force: natural selection favors more effective predators and more evasive prey. “Arms races” have been recorded in some snails, which over time become more heavily armored prey, and their predators, crabs, which over time develop more massive claws with greater crushing power. Growth-Collapse predator-prey systems are potentially unstable. Humans who engage in totalitarian agriculture, engage in Predator-Prey Growth and Collapse of Civilization/Empire cycles: Greco-Rome, Minoan, Mycenaean, Sumerians, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Zhou, Han, Tang, Song, Parthian, Sassanid, Umayyad, Abbasid, Mauryan, Gupta, Maya, Hittite, Harrapan and Teotihuacan. Collapses result from (1) Ecological Strain and (2) Economic Stratification and include the disappearance of between 90-99% of the populations (from famine, disease and organized violence resource wars) including their kings, Gods, calendars and other complex political and cultural institutions. Economic Stratification Collapse occurs due to unequal consumption of resources generating Elites vs Commoners. As Elites become sizable and keep growing, they consume more; their over-exploitation results in collapse of resources to the Commoners; who experience famine and collapse. Elites — due to their wealth — do not suffer the detrimental effects of environmental collapse until much later than Commoners, which allows them to continue ‘business as usual’, despite the impending catastrophe; explaining how historical collapses were allowed to occur by seemingly oblivious elites (eg Roman & Mayan cases). Ecological Overshoot Collapse can occur in the absence of economic stratification, when depletion of natural capital per capita is too high.
» EoP Leg Sub: Conflict of Cultures: EoP v WiP [eop-v-wip.tygae.org.za]