Putin Wants to Promote Objective Truth about WWII | WiP ism international law as source of resource conflict | EoP v WiP ism international law | Meltdown: Men Who Crashed the World | Queen: Why did nobody see the Economic Collapse Coming? | 2012 & 14 Motesharrei, Rivas & Kalnay Nasa-Funded Studies: Human (Predator) and Nature (Prey) Dynamics (HANDY) studies | Field Marshal Herbert Kitchener | Anglo Boer War: British Scorched Earth Policy | Lizzie van Zyl a starving Boer child, visited by Emily Hobhouse in a Boer War British concentration camp | Nelson Mandela | Nelson Mandela Freemason – Sovereign Military Order of Malta | Kill the Farmer / Kill the Boer | Totalitarian Agriculture & Ecological Collapse | Farm Murders / Plaas Moorde | Sharpeville Massacre | Marikana Massacre | Tsar Nicholas II, Romanov Family & their Execution by the Bolsheviks.
Putin Wants to Promote Objective Truth about WWII
— #Resist (@ZaibatsuNews) May 6, 2017
WiP ism international law as source of resource conflict
— EoP MILED Clerk (@EoPMiledClerk) May 6, 2017
EoP v WiP ism international law.
All EoP ism’s — whether national, racial, religious or ideological — require their members to procreate & consume below ecological carrying capacity limits & engage in fully informed consenting agreements. Informed Consent EoP Law allow the members to co-operatively & democratically decide for themselves what their – racial, religious, national or ideological – family, village or nation’s Informed Consent Cultural Laws should be; based upon their – racial, religious, national or ideological – preferences.
All WiP ism’s — whether national, racial, religious or ideological — allow their members to procreate & consume above ecological carrying capacity limits for the WiPism Ego-Conquest labour/resource profits. WiPism groups who procreate/consume above carrying capacity limits expand their WiPism tribes into other WiPism resource territory; to conquer, occupy & colonize other WiPism groups resources &/or coercively spread their WiPism culture. WiPism intn’l law is based upon force and deception; not informed consent.
» EoP v WiP NWO Neg: eop-v-wip-ism.
» IG: 17-04-21_eop-v-wip-ipatftptimpact.
EoP TRC Amicus to SA Concourt: The Citizen v Robert McBride
The EoP Amicus argued that South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission was a fraud, denying both sides – Apartheid and Anti-Apartheid – an honest enquiry into the root — breeding & consumption above ecological carrying capacity limits — causes of racial, religious and class resource conflict; including South Africa’s Apartheid and Anti-Apartheid resource conflict.
» EoP Leg Sub: The Citizen v Robert McBride.
» IG: 17-05-08_eop-v-wip-law; 17-05-13_eop-v-wip-lawpsych.
Meltdown: Men Who Crashed the World
In the first episode of Meltdown, we hear about four men who brought down the global economy: a billionaire mortgage-seller who fooled millions; a high-rolling banker with a fatal weakness; a ferocious Wall Street predator; and the power behind the throne. The crash of September 2008 brought the largest bankruptcies in world history, pushing more than 30 million people into unemployment and bringing many countries to the edge of insolvency. Wall Street turned back the clock to 1929. But how did it all go so wrong? Lack of government regulation; easy lending in the US housing market meant anyone could qualify for a home loan with no government regulations in place. Also, London was competing with New York as the banking capital of the world. Gordon Brown, the British finance minister at the time, introduced ‘light touch regulation’ – giving bankers a free hand in the marketplace. All this, and with key players making the wrong financial decisions, saw the world’s biggest financial collapse.
» Al Jazeera: Meltdown: The Men Who Crashed the World.
Queen: Why did nobody see the Economic Collapse Coming?
The Queen asks why no one saw the credit crunch coming: The Queen, whose personal fortune is estimated to have fallen £25 million in the credit crunch, has demanded to know why no one saw the financial crisis coming. During a briefing by academics at the London School of Economics on the turmoil on the international markets the Queen asked: “Why did nobody notice it?” Professor Luis Garicano, director of research at the London School of Economics’ management department, had explained the origins and effects of the credit crisis when she opened the £71 million New Academic Building. The Queen, who studiously avoids controversy and never gives away her opinions, then described the turbulence on the markets as “awful”.
» Telegraph; Daily Mail; Express;
Her Majesty gets the answer to her question – four years after she asked it – on a tour of the Bank of England. One doesn’t normally keep the Queen waiting. But on Thursday Her Majesty finally received an answer to a question she first asked four years ago: why did nobody notice the “awful” financial crisis earlier? As she toured the Bank of England’s gold vault, Sujit Kapadia, an economist and one of the Bank’s top financial policy experts, stopped the Queen to say he would like to answer the question she first posed to academics at the London School of Economics at the height of the financial crisis in 2008. “Oh,” she said, slightly taken aback, as Kapadia went on to explain that as the global economy boomed in the pre-crisis years, the City had got “complacent” and many thought regulation wasn’t necessary.
» The Guardian: Queen finally finds out why no one saw the financial crisis coming.
2012 & 14 Motesharrei, Rivas & Kalnay Nasa-Funded Studies: Human (Predator) and Nature (Prey) Dynamics (HANDY) studies
Humans who engage in totalitarian agriculture, engage in Predator-Prey Growth and Collapse of Civilization/Empire cycles: Greco-Rome, Minoan, Mycenaean, Sumerians, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Zhou, Han, Tang, Song, Parthian, Sassanid, Umayyad, Abbasid, Mauryan, Gupta, Maya, Hittite, Harrapan and Teotihuacan. Collapses result from (1) Ecological Strain and (2) Economic Stratification and include the disappearance of between 90-99% of the populations (from famine, disease and organized violence resource wars) including their kings, Gods, calendars and other complex political and cultural institutions.
Economic Stratification Collapse occurs due to unequal consumption of resources generating Elites vs Commoners. As Elites become sizable and keep growing, they consume more; their over-exploitation results in collapse of resources to the Commoners; who experience famine and collapse. Elites — due to their wealth — do not suffer the detrimental effects of environmental collapse until much later than Commoners, which allows them to continue ‘business as usual’, despite the impending catastrophe; explaining how historical collapses were allowed to occur by seemingly oblivious elites (eg Roman & Mayan cases).
» Military Gospel: NASA Handy Studies.
Field Marshal Herbert Kitchener
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War. Kitchener won fame in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan, after which he was given the title “Lord Kitchener of Khartoum”; as Chief of Staff (1900–02) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts’ conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned. Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General (de facto administrator). In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, and have the authority to act effectively on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, and oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy. Kitchener died on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations when the ship struck a German mine. He was one of more than 600 killed on board the ship.
Anglo Boer War: British Scorched Earth Policy
The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, “Second Freedom War”), usually known as the Boer War and also at the time as the South African War, started on 11 October 1899 and ended on 31 May 1902. Great Britain defeated two Boer states in South Africa: the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State. Britain was aided by its Cape Colony, Colony of Natal and some native African allies. The British war effort was further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada, India, and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion in them was largely hostile to Britain. Inside Britain and its Empire there also was significant opposition to the Second Boer War.
The British were overconfident and under-prepared. The Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg. Staggered, the British brought in large numbers of soldiers and fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener. They relieved the three besieged cities, and invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland. The British quickly seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile. In conventional terms, the war was over. Britain officially annexed the two countries in 1900, and called a “khaki election” to give the government another six years of power in London. However, the Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two more years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed. As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, supplies, and horses. The British solution was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease, especially the children, who mostly lacked immunities. Then the British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer guerrilla units. The battles at this stage were small operations with few combat casualties (most of the dead were victims of disease.) The war ended in surrender and surprisingly lenient British terms at the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. The British successfully won over the Boer leaders, who now gave full support to the new political system. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, which Boers controlled.
Lizzie van Zyl a starving Boer child, visited by Emily Hobhouse in a Boer War British concentration camp
Lizzie van Zyl (22 April 1894 – 9 May 1901) was a child inmate of Bloemfontein concentration camp who died from typhoid fever during the Second Boer War. The British incarcerated her in a concentration camp following the refusal of her father, a Boer combatant, to surrender. Activist Emily Hobhouse used her death as an example of the hardships the Boer women and children faced in the British concentration camps during the war. She describes Lizzie as “a frail, weak little child in desperate need of good care”, who was placed on the lowest rations and, after a month, was moved to the new hospital about 50 kilometres (31 miles) away from the concentration camp, suffering from starvation. Initially the publishers of Hobhouse’s reports refused to publish the photograph. According to Hobhouse, she was treated harshly in the hospital. Unable to speak English, she was labelled an “idiot” by an English-speaking doctor and her nurses, who were unable to understand her. One day she started calling for her mother; a lady went over to comfort her, but “was brusquely interrupted by one of the nurses who told her not to interfere with the child as she was a nuisance.” Lizzie died in 1901 at seven years of age.
Concentration Camps: 1900-1902: The term “concentration camp” was used to describe camps operated by the British in South Africa during this conflict, and the term grew in prominence during this period. The camps had originally been set up by the British Army as “refugee camps” to provide refuge for civilian families who had been forced to abandon their homes for whatever reason related to the war. However, when Kitchener took over in late 1900, he introduced new tactics in an attempt to break the guerrilla campaign and the influx of civilians grew dramatically as a result. Kitchener initiated plans to “flush out guerrillas in a series of systematic drives, organised like a sporting shoot, with success defined in a weekly ‘bag’ of killed, captured and wounded, and to sweep the country bare of everything that could give sustenance to the guerrillas, including women and children … It was the clearance of civilians—uprooting a whole nation—that would come to dominate the last phase of the war.” As Boer farms were destroyed by the British under their “Scorched Earth” policy—including the systematic destruction of crops and slaughtering of livestock, the burning down of homesteads and farms, and the poisoning of wells and salting of fields—to prevent the Boers from resupplying from a home base many tens of thousands of women and children were forcibly moved into the concentration camps. This was not the first appearance of internment camps, as the Spanish had used internment in Cuba in the Ten Years’ War, but the Boer War concentration camp system was the first time that a whole nation had been systematically targeted, and the first in which some whole regions had been depopulated. Eventually, there were a total of 45 tented camps built for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans. Of the 28,000 Boer men captured as prisoners of war, 25,630 were sent overseas. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the local camps were women and children. Over 26,000 women and children were to perish in these concentration camps.
Emily Hobhouse campaigned for improvement to the appalling conditions of the concentration camps. She helped to alter public opinion and to force the government to improve conditions in the camps, resulting in the Fawcett Commission.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born in Mvezo to the Thembu royal family. He studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party’s white-only government established apartheid—a system of racial segregation that privileged whites—he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANC’s Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government. In 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk negotiated an end to apartheid and organised the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became President. Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country’s racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela’s administration retained its predecessor’s liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs, also introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a second presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation. Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the radical left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid’s supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism. Widely regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, and described as the “Father of the Nation”.
Nelson Mandela Freemason – Sovereign Military Order of Malta:
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta, also known as the original Sovereign Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, is a closed fraternity of the Roman Catholic Church. Its initiated members must be Catholic and have served in the military. They participate in secret ceremonies and feudal ritual dress, and embrace a strong class/caste mentality as part of their initiation into Rosicrucian dogma. The upper grades are fastidiously aristocratic and must be able to display a family coat-of-arms dating back at least 300 years in unbroken succession from father to son. The Sovereign Grand Master of the order is recognized as a head of state, and his authority is ensured by his secular ranking as a Prince, and his ecclesiastical ranking as a Cardinal. Under international law this organization has independent Sovereign status, which assures nationalistic loyalty from its members, above and beyond allegiance to their own country – they also have Permanent Observer status at the United Nations.
….. It is round about here that many of my fellow South Africans want to slap me on the wrist for even mentioning something negative that could potentially be associated with their beloved national hero Nelson Mandela, but the sad reality is, if you want to look at how South Africa ties into the global conspiracy, Mandela is the place to start. Apart from being a 33rd Degree Freemason, Nelson Mandela is also a Knight of Malta and St John, as is the president that came after him, Thabo Mbeki, both of whom ran South Africa on behalf of the Vatican.
» Vatican New World Order: Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
Kill the Farmer / Kill the Boer
On a Saturday morning in winter 2002, scores of luxury sedans descended onto what was then known as the University of the North in Mankweng, outside Polokwane. In the cars were struggle veterans, government ministers and many of the icons of the ANC – amongst them former president Nelson Mandela, president Thabo Mbeki, deputy president Jacob Zuma, and “mother of the nation” Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. Formal proceedings had begun at 7am at the nearby home of the deceased, and emotions had been building for hours. When Limpopo premier Ngoako Ramatlhodi announced that the coffin of Peter Mokaba had arrived in the university’s stadium, the crowd spontaneously erupted into a chant of “Kill the boer, kill the farmer”.
It was a refrain that Mokaba had first uttered at a Chris Hani memorial rally in Cape Town in 1993, during the explosive months when it seemed possible that South Africa would descend into all-out race war. On that day Mokaba, the then president of the ANC Youth League, galvanised his organisation’s deep anger at Hani’s murder by rightwing whites into something concrete: a song that perfectly (and terrifyingly) expressed the anger.
Race war was averted, thanks in large part to the efforts of Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu, but nine years later, around the time of Mokaba’s funeral, there was still a community in South Africa who believed they were being targeted and killed because of the colour of their skin. These were the boers themselves, the white farmers, and they had the numbers to back themselves up.
A Dutch journalist by the name of Adriana Stuijt, a former anti-apartheid activist, was quoted saying the following after the funeral of Mokaba: “”Why has the South African farmer become the world’s most endangered species? Why are South Africa’s few remaining commercial farmers now most at risk of being murdered in the whole world? They are being murdered at 264 per 100,000 population group. It is the highest in the world! A Nedbank probe recently described these farm attacks as ‘deliberately targeting specific homesteads to kill the Afrikaner victims.'”
Stuijt also pointed out that if these “vicious” farm murders had occurred in Zimbabwe, they would be global news. She felt that post-apartheid South Africa was somehow immune to the truth of what was going on in the platteland.
A further eight years later and, for reasons nobody can quite explain, another leader of the ANC Youth League rolled out the “kill the boer” slogan, although this time in a slightly different form. In protest, Afrikaner lobby group Afriforum took a petition to the ANC’s head offices in Johannesburg – along with the petition, they handed over a list of 1,600 recent victims of farm attacks in South Africa. The Youth League’s response was to throw the list into the gutter and trample on it.
Finally, on Friday March 26th 2010, the question of the legality of the phrase was brought before a South African court. According to Acting Judge Leon Halgryn of the South Gauteng High Court, it is now unconstitutional to utter or sing the phrase “dubul’ibhunu” (“shoot the boer”) in the country. Halrgyn ruled that the phrase amounts to hate speech, and is therefore not protected by section 16 of the constitution, which safeguards freedom of speech.
» Daily Maverick: Kill the Boer: A Brief History.
Totalitarian Agriculture & Ecological Collapse
Food and population control
A continual theme through The Story of B’s teachings is that population growth is dependent upon food production, with increases in food production leading to increases in population. B’s (i.e. Quinn’s) thinking here should not be confused with the ideas of Thomas Malthus, who made the prediction that population would outrun food supply. In B’s own words, “Malthus’s warning was about the inevitable failure of totalitarian agriculture. My warning is about its continued success.” Quinn characterizes the Malthusian problem as “How are we going to FEED all these people?” and contrasts this with his own: “How are we going to stop PRODUCING all these people?”
History of humanity since the Great Forgetting
The people of our culture established a style of agriculture that B labels “totalitarian agriculture”. “Prehistoric” hunters and gatherers operated according to a worldview that promoted coexistence and limited competition between predator and prey. However, the totalitarian agriculturist operates with the worldview that the world is theirs to control and all the food in the world is theirs to produce and eat. Totalitarian agriculturists, while originally representing a single society, eventually began to overrun other societies as their food supply and populations grew. (B sometimes calls the totalitarian agriculturists “Takers,” a term first used by Ishmael in the novel of the same name). Interestingly, B notes, even tribal societies that battle with and claim victory over other ones do not normally force their defeated enemies to assimilate as do the members of our own world-dominating Taker culture. B comments, “The Tak [that is, B’s name the earliest members of the Taker culture] had the remarkable and unprecedented idea that everyone should live the way they lived. It’s impossible to exaggerate how unusual this made them. I can’t name a single other [tribalistic] people in history who made it a goal to proselytize their neighbors.” Under proliferation of totalitarian agriculture, the world population began to double, first taking 2000 years; then taking 1600 years; and eventually only taking 200 years between 1700 and 1900 AD; then again between 1900 and 1960 AD; and yet again between 1960 and 1996 AD. Over the last 10,000 years, this single society has expanded to include 99.8% of the world’s population. B argues that this exponential growth of the human population is not sustainable. He points to several major problems in our society that he claims arose from over-produced food and an over-crowded population. He states that war, crime, famine, plague, an exploited labor force, drug abuse, slavery, rebellion, and genocide have resulted from Totalitarian Agriculturists’ continual expansion. B emphasizes that to reverse the damage we have caused, humankind does not inherently need to change, but rather a single culture has to be changed.
Collapse of culture:
B uses the phrase “cultural collapse” to describe the point of history that we are living through today. He believes that circumstances have rendered the cultural mythology of the Takers meaningless to its people. When this happens to a culture, B states, things fall apart. “Order and purpose are replaced by chaos and bewilderment. People lose the will to live, become listless, become violent, become suicidal, and take to drink, drugs, and crime… laws, customs and institutions fall into disuse and disrespect, especially among the young, who see that even their elders can no longer make sense of them.”
» SQSwans: Totalitarian Agriculture: Daniel Quinn; Richard Manning.
Derrick Jensen: Open Letter to Reclaim Environmentalism:
One sign of intelligence is the ability to recognize patterns: let’s lay out a pattern and see if we can recognize it in less than 10,000 years. When you think of Iraq, do you think of cedar forests so thick that sunlight never touches the ground? That’s how it was prior to the beginnings of this culture. The Near East was a forest. North Africa was a forest. Greece was a forest. All pulled down to support this [War is Penis] culture.
» [EoP Amended] Derrick Jensen: Open Letter to Reclaim Environmentalism.
» IG: 17-03-01_genghiskhangreen-eopscevolution.
Farm Murders / Plaas Moorde
The South African farm attacks (Afrikaans: plaasmoorde; “plaas” = farm, “moorde” = murders) are an ongoing trend of violent attacks on farmers in South Africa. Between 1994 and March 2012, there had been 361,015 murders in all of South Africa and between 1990 and March 2012, there had been 1,544 murders on South African farms (the majority of which were white). In January 2015, AfriForum reported that there has been an increase in farm attacks and murders in the previous five years. A spike in violent attacks on farmers in February 2017 led to one of the country’s largest prayer meetings being held on the 22-23 April 2017 in Bloemfontein, attracting over one million participants.
Since the start of 2017, 26 farmers have been brutally murdered. Recent statistics indicate that as many as one farm attack a day occurs across the country. Farmers say they’re under siege, but that government is turning a blind eye.
» Carteblanche: Farm Murders: 01/02. Russia Today: Farm Murders in South Africa.
The Sharpeville massacre was an event which occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal (today part of Gauteng).
After a day of demonstrations against pass laws, a crowd of about 5,000 to 7,000 protesters went to the police station. The South African Police opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 people. Sources disagree as to the behaviour of the crowd; some state that the crowd was peaceful, while others state that the crowd had been hurling stones at the police, and that the shooting started when the crowd started advancing toward the fence around the police station. In present-day South Africa, 21 March is celebrated as a public holiday in honour of human rights and to commemorate the Sharpeville massacre.
South African governments since the eighteenth century had enacted measures to restrict the flow of black South Africans into cities. Pass laws intended to control and direct their movement and employment were updated in the 1950s. Under the country’s National Party government, black residents in urban districts were subject to influx control measures. Individuals over sixteen were required to carry passbooks, which contained an identity card, employment and influx authorisation from a labour bureau, name of employer and address, and details of personal history. Leading up to the Sharpeville massacre, the National Party administration under the leadership of Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd used these laws to enforce greater racial segregation and, in 1959-1960, extended them to include women. From the 1960s, the pass laws were the primary instrument used by the state to detain and harass its political opponents. The African National Congress (ANC) prepared to initiate a campaign of protests against pass laws. These protests were to begin on 31 March 1960, but the rival Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), led by Robert Sobukwe, decided to pre-empt the ANC by launching its own campaign ten days earlier, on 21 March, because they believed that the ANC could not win the campaign.
Massacre: On March 21, a group of between 5,000 and 10,000 people converged on the local police station in the township of Sharpeville, offering themselves up for arrest for not carrying their passbooks. The Sharpeville police were not completely unprepared for the demonstration, as they had already been forced to drive smaller groups of more militant activists away the previous night. Many of the civilians present attended to support the protest, but there is evidence that the PAC also used intimidating means to draw the crowd there, including the cutting of telephone lines into Sharpeville, the distribution of pamphlets telling people not to go to work on the day, and coercion of bus drivers and commuters. By 10:00, a large crowd had gathered, and the atmosphere was initially peaceful and festive. Fewer than 20 police officers were present in the station at the start of the protest. Later the crowd grew to about 20,000, and the mood was described as “ugly”, prompting about 130 police reinforcements, supported by four Saracen armoured personnel carriers, to be rushed in. The police were armed with firearms, including Sten submachine guns and Lee–Enfield rifles. There was no evidence that anyone in the gathering was armed with anything other than rocks. F-86 Sabre jets and Harvard Trainers approached to within a hundred feet of the ground, flying low over the crowd in an attempt to scatter it. The protesters responded by hurling stones (striking three policemen) and menacing the police barricades. Tear gas proved ineffectual, and policemen elected to repel these advances with their batons. At about 13:00 the police tried to arrest a protestor, resulting in a scuffle, and the crowd surged forward. The shooting began shortly thereafter.
» SA History Online: Sharpeville Massacre 21 March 1960. SABC: Sharpeville Massacre Survivors. Journeyman Pictures: Remember Robert Sobukwe. Catalyst: The Sharpeville Massacre.
Hector Pieterson (19 August 1963 – 16 June 1976) became the subject of an iconic image of the 1976 Soweto uprising in South Africa when a news photograph by Sam Nzima of the dying Hector being carried by another student while his sister ran next to them, was published around the world. He was killed at the age of 12 when the police opened fire on protesting students. For years, 16 June stood as a symbol of resistance to the brutality of the apartheid government. Today, it is designated Youth Day — when South Africans honour young people and bring attention to their needs.
The Marikana massacre, which took place between 10 August and 20 September 2012, was the single most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1960. The shootings have been described as a massacre in the South African media and have been compared to the Sharpeville massacre in 1960. The incident also took place on the 25-year anniversary of a nationwide South African miners’ strike.
Controversy emerged after it was discovered that most of the victims were shot in the back, and many victims were shot far from police lines. On 18 September, a mediator announced a resolution to the conflict, stating the striking miners had accepted a 22% pay rise, a one-off payment of 2,000 rand and would return to work 20 September. The strike was considered a seminal event in modern South African history, and was followed by similar strikes at other mines across South Africa, events which collectively made 2012 the most protest-filled year in the country since the end of apartheid.
The Marikana massacre started as a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, South Africa in 2012. The event garnered international attention following a series of violent incidents between the South African Police Service, Lonmin security and the leadership of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) on the one side and strikers themselves on the other, which resulted in the deaths of 44 people, 41 of whom were striking mineworkers killed by police. Also, during the same incident, at least 78 additional workers were injured. The total number of injuries during the strike remains unknown. In response to the Lonmin strikers, there were a wave of wildcat strikes across the South African mining sector.
The first incidents of violence were reported to have started on 11 August after NUM leaders opened fire on NUM members who were on strike. Initial reports indicated that it was widely believed that two strikers died that day; however, it later turned out that two strikers were seriously wounded, but not killed, in the shooting by NUM members. This violence was followed by the death of another eight strikers, police and security personnel who were killed in the following three days.
» Uhuru Productions: Miners Shot Down. ENCA News: Marikana Massacre.
Tsar Nicholas II, Romanov Family & their Execution by the Bolsheviks
Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II Алекса́ндрович; 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution, the execution of political opponents and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War, he was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody by his political adversaries. Soviet historiography portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader, whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects. Russia suffered a decisive defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, which saw the annihilation of the Russian Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Tsushima, loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea, and the Japanese annexation of South Sakhalin. The Anglo-Russian Entente, designed to counter German attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, ended the Great Game between Russia and the United Kingdom. Nicholas approved the Russian mobilisation on 30 July 1914, which led to Germany declaring war on Russia on 1 August 1914. It is estimated that around 3,300,000 Russians were killed in World War I. The Imperial Army’s severe losses and the High Command’s incompetent management of the war efforts, along with the lack of food and other supplies on the Home Front, were the leading causes of the fall of the Romanov dynasty. Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son, and he was imprisoned with his family. In the spring of 1918, the family was handed over to the local Ural Soviet; they were eventually executed by the Bolsheviks on the night of 16–17 July 1918. The recovered remains of the Imperial Family were finally re-interred in St. Petersburg, eighty years to the day on 17 July 1998.
On 17 July 2017, Czar Nicholas II and his family were murdered by Bolsheviks in a small town in the Ural Mountains: Ekaterinburg. In 1977, the place of their execution: Ipatiev house, was demolished by order of the first secretary of the region. Yet, since the fall of communism in Russia, the former site of the Ipatiev house has become a place of pilgrimmage. If this house had not been destroyed, there’s no doubt that it would today be a museum about the tragic end of the Romanovs.
» Romanov Memorial: Ipatiev House: The Execution. Romanov Family: Romanov Family Association. St Petersburg: The Romanovs: Lives of the Russian Imperial Family. Alexander and Sons Restoration: Imperial Killing: The Legend of the Romanov Murders.
Tsar Nicholas Execution – 16 & 17 July – Bolshevik ‘Axis of Monarchy’ Necessity Execution – 19 July Nationalization of Romanov property – 01 Oct: Rehabilitated by Russian Supreme Court – Russian Orthodox Church Dissent about Bones:
Execution of the Royal Family: The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment – notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov – were shot, bayoneted and clubbed to death in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918. The Tsar and his family were killed by Bolshevik troops led by Yakov Yurovsky under the orders of the Ural Regional Soviet. Their bodies were then mutilated, burned and buried in a field called Porosenkov Log in the Koptyaki forest. …. As Trotsky would later explain, “The Tsar’s family was a victim of the principle that form the very axis of monarchy: dynastic inheritance”, for which their deaths were a necessity. …. While the Romanovs were having dinner on 16 July, Yurovsky entered the sitting room and informed them that the kitchen boy Leonid Sednev was leaving to meet his uncle Ivan Sednev, who had returned to the city asking to see him; Ivan had already been shot by the Cheka. …. Around midnight 17 July 1918, Yakov Yurovsky, the commandant of The House of Special Purpose, ordered the Romanovs’ physician, Dr. Eugene Botkin, to awaken the sleeping family and ask them to put on their clothes, under the pretext that the family would be moved to a safe location due to impending chaos in Yekaterinburg. The Romanovs were then ordered into a semi-basement room. Nicholas asked if Yurovsky could bring two chairs, on which Tsarevich Alexei and Alexandra sat. Yurovsky’s assistant Grigory Nikulin remarked to him that the “heir wanted to die in a chair. Very well then, let him have one.” The prisoners were told to wait in the cellar room while the truck that would transport them was being brought to the House. A few minutes later, an execution squad of secret police was brought in and Yurovsky read aloud the order given him by the Ural Executive Committee: “Nikolai Alexandrovich, in view of the fact that your relatives are continuing their attack on Soviet Russia, the Ural Executive Committee has decided to execute you.” …. On 19 July, the Bolsheviks nationalized all confiscated Romanov properties, the same day Sverdlov announced the tsar’s execution to the Council of People’s Commissars. …. There was considerable dissent within the Russian Orthodox Church about whether or not the bones actually discovered in the forest were those of the Romanovs at all. The Holy Synod opposed the government’s decision in February 1998 to bury the remains in the Peter and Paul Fortress, preferring a “symbolic” grave until their authenticity had been resolved. As a result, when they were interred in July 1998, they were referred to by the priest conducting the service as “Christian victims of the Revolution” rather than the imperial family. … On 1 October 2008, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation ruled that Nicholas II and his family were victims of political repression and rehabilitated them.
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